How vitamins impact health

Vitamins are complex organic substances, biologically active and with a diverse molecular structure, which are necessary for humans in small amounts, also known as micronutrients. Most of the vitamins, apart from D, K, B1, B2 and folic acid, are not synthesized by the body, and if this do, amounts are insufficient; therefore, its external contribution is necessary.  -By Dr. Zhukovski Durán Magne

We are going to focus first of all on the vitamin content of the different foods that we have at our disposal, although we must take into account that during the process of handling and cooking food we can modify its vitamin content.

Vitamins are grouped int two categories

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s liver, fatty tissue, and muscles. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat.

Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body. The nine water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and all the B vitamins. Any leftover or excess amounts of these leave the body through the urine. They have to be consumed on a regular basis to prevent shortages or deficiencies in the body. The exception to this is vitamin B12, which can be stored in the liver for many years.

The recommended daily dose of the different vitamins is different depending on age and sex. Therefore, we will divide the population into 3 groups in order to be able to reflect in detail the recommended doses per day:

Recommended daily dose of vitamins for children between 0 – 9

DOSES PER DAY0 – 1 1 – 5 6 – 9
VITAMIN A450 µg300 µg400 µg
VITAMIN D10 µg10 µg5 µg
VITAMIN E6 mg6-7 mg8 mg
VITAMIN B10.3 – 0.4 mg0.5 – 0.7 mg0.8 mg
VITAMIN B20.4 – 0.6 mg0.8 – 1 mg1.2 mg
VITAMIN B34 – 6 mg8 – 11 mg13 mg
VITAMIN B60.3 – 0.5 mg0.7 – 1.1 mg1.4 mg
VITAMIN B940 – 60 µg100 µg100 µg
VITAMIN B120.3 µg0.9 – 1.5 µg1.5 µg
VITAMIN C50 mg55 mg55 mg

Recommended daily dose of vitamins for people between 10 – 60

DOSES PER DAY10 – 15 MEN10 – 15 WOMEN16 – 40 MEN 16 – 40 WOMEN41 – 60 MAN41 – 60 WOMEN
VITAMIN A1000 µg800 µg1000 µg800 µg1000 µg800 µg
VITAMIN D5 µg5 µg5 µg5 µg10 µg10 µg
VITAMIN E10 – 11 mg10 – 11 mg12 mg12 mg12 mg12 mg
VITAMIN K1 µg per kilogram of weight
VITAMIN B11 – 1.1 mg0.9 – 1 mg1.2 mg0.9 mg1.1 mg0.9 – 0.8 mg
VITAMIN B21.5 – 1.7 mg1.4 – 1.5 mg1.8 mg1.4 mg1.6 – 1.7 mg1.2 – 1.3 mg
VITAMIN B316 – 18 mg15 – 17 mg20 mg15 mg18 – 19 mg14 mg
VITAMIN B61.6 – 2.1 mg1.6 – 2.1 mg1.8 – 2.1 mg1.6 – 1.7 mg1.8 mg1.6 mg
VITAMIN B9300 – 400 µg300 – 400 µg400 µg400 µg400 µg400 µg
VITAMIN B122 µg2 µg2 µg2 µg2 µg2 µg
VITAMIN C60 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg

Recommended daily dose of vitamins for people over 60 years old

VITAMIN A1000 µg900 µg800 µg700 µg
VITAMIN D10 µg15 µg10 µg15 µg
VITAMIN E10 mg12 mg8 mg10 mg
VITAMIN K1 µg per kilogram of weight
VITAMIN B11.2 mg1.2 mg1.1 mg1.1 mg
VITAMIN B21.3 mg1.4 mg1.1 mg1.1 mg
VITAMIN B316 mg16 mg15 mg15 mg
VITAMIN B61.7 mg1.9 mg1.7 mg1.9 mg
VITAMIN B9400 µg400 µg400 µg400 µg
VITAMIN B122.4 µg3 µg2.4 µg3 µg
VITAMIN C60 – 100 mg60 – 100 mg60 – 100 mg60 – 100 mg